Evolution Of Operating System For Computers
The operating system is the vital component of the computer system. The operating system is a collection of software that manages computer hardware. The operating system provides common services for computer programs. It runs all the programs and applications and performs basic tasks like recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display and also keeping files. Operating systems have been evolving through the years and the operating system historically been closely tied to the architecture of the computers. Studying the history of the operating system from the architecture is a good idea. Each and every operating system has the different features.
Operating System History
The earliest electronic digital computers don’t have operating systems and the machines of that time were so primitive. So, the programs were often entered one bit at the time on rows of mechanical switches. In this generation, programming languages were unknown and operating systems were unheard of.
The second generation is most important one in the history of the operating system. With the introduction of punch cards, the routine had improved somewhat. The first operating system was implemented by the General Motors Research Laboratories in early 1950’s for IBM 701. So, 50’s generation systems ran one job at a time and it was called as a single-stream batch processing system. In this, the programs and data were submitted in groups or batches.
The third generation systems are also batch processing systems but they can run several jobs at once. The designers of the operating system developed the concept of multiprogramming so that several jobs are in main memory at once. While keeping the peripheral devices in use, a processor is switched from one job to another job as needed. Spooling technique is the major advantage of the third-generation operating system. A high-speed device such as a disk interposed between a running program and a low-speed device involved with the program in input or output in the spooling. Another important feature of the third generation was time-sharing technique and multiprogramming techniques in which each user has an on-line terminal. Timesharing system can be developed for multiprogramming for the interactive users.
Microprocessor technology evolved in this generation that becomes possible to build desktop computers as powerful as the mainframes. MS-DOS and Intel 18088 CPU and its successors and UNIX have dominated the personal computers. These operating systems are more powerful than other three generation operating systems.
The software development was dictated by the technology. The history of the operating system helps you to gain more knowledge about the operating systems. The operating system offers more security for your data in the computer. Security can be an important concern and needs to be incorporated with the fundamental levels of the system. The evolution of operating systems is growing higher in the today’s technological world. Operating systems are important one while designing a computer. The operating system is the heart of the computer so that innovation in operating systems is increased day by day on the basis user needs.